Mogadishu: Images from the Past

Gendershe ruins

Posted in 1980s, X: Other locations by rickjdavies on 8 January, 2014

Gondereshe2008From the Wikipedia entry on Gondershe , with a photo dated as 2008.

But I query the date. The ruins look much more visible here than they did when I visited in site the 1980’s. At that time they were much more overgrown with scrub. And the 2011 Google image below also shows them to be very overgrown, and possibly less intact than the photo above.

The location, as visible via Google Maps

Gondershe

Somali government and other publications from the 1970s

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period, Text by rickjdavies on 9 June, 2013

Available via Tobias Hagmann’s website:

 

Plus

 

 

Somali DSomali Democratic Republic (1979), Selected Speeches of the SRSP Secretary General and the Somali Democratic Republic President, Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre. Mogadishu: Ministry of Information and National Guidance.emocratic Republic (1971), BPuzo, W. D. (1972), Mogadishu, Somalia: Geographic Aspects of its Evolution, Population, Functions, and Morphology. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.eautiful Somalia. Mogadishu: Ministry of Information and National Guidance.

 

Map of Mogadishu – City Centre in the1970s?

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period, Maps by rickjdavies on 9 June, 2013

Mogadishu mapFrom page 5 of “Mogadishu: Pearl of the Indian Ocean” (pdf copy here)

Undated, could be in the 1970s.

“General Mohamed Siyad”

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period, People by rickjdavies on 15 April, 2013

Barre“Leader of the military coup ousting Premier Egal, Commander of the Somalia Armed Forces shown here with his adjuntary (a major) outside the military headquarters in Mogadiscio” In 1969

Somali music from the 1980s

Posted in 1980s, Audio, Media by rickjdavies on 12 April, 2013

I hope to create a list here, including audio files and links to other websites with audio files. Here is one

Mogadishu street kids, circa 1987

Posted in 1980s, Markets, People by rickjdavies on 10 April, 2013

Drawings of street kids washing cars, carrying loads, polishing shoes, sniffing glue and running from the police
SK1SK2SK3

“Suuqa xoolaha Muqdisho”

Posted in 1980s, Markets by rickjdavies on 7 April, 2013

Animal marketLivestock market, in Hawl Wadag district in the 1980s

Postscript 01/05/2015: This is where I thought this market was

2.037918, 45.327710

Mogadishu map, 1986

Posted in 1980s, Maps by rickjdavies on 7 April, 2013

wholemog4

Click on photo to enlarge

Produced as a folding map to go with “Mogadishu from the Air”, produced by USAID

City centre was enlarged as a separate smaller map, shown below. Numbers are explained at the top of the laerger map above.citycentremap

“Xaafada, Suuqa iyo Jidka: A study of disadvantaged areas and groups in Muqdisho, Somalia”

Posted in 1980s, Text by rickjdavies on 16 April, 2010

“The village, the Market and the Street: A study of disadvantaged areas and groups in Mogadishu, Somalia” Available as pdf.A report prepared for the Municipality of Mogadishu, by Richard Davies. Funded by BOCD, UNICEF, Oxfam, CCFD France. Published by UNICEF- Mogadiscio, October 1988

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. VII

2002 PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
BACKGROUND ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
CHANGES MADE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.  THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2
2.  THE PERSPECTIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
3.  RESEARCH STRATEGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
CHAPTER 2: ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………… 7
CHAPTER 2: ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………… 8
MUUSE AND HIS FAMILY …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
TWO AND A HALF YEARS LATER:  ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU IN 1988 …………………………………… 12
CHAPTER 3: THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND …………………………………………………………………… 18
1.  MOGADISHU BEFORE THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ……………………………………………………… 18
2.  MOGADISHU IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ……………………………………………………………….. 19
CHAPTER 4: THE DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT ……………………………………………………………………… 23
1.  THE POPULATION OF MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………….. 23
2.  THE GROWTH OF MOGADISHU ………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
3.  POPULATION DISTRIBUTION WITHIN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………… 25
4.  MIGRATION INTO MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………………… 26
5.  THE MIGRANT PRESENCE WITHIN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………. 29
6.  HOUSEHOLDS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
CHAPTER 5: LAND IN MOGADISHU…………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
2.  THE PURCHASE OF LAND FROM THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOGADISHU…………………………. 39
3.  THE PRIVATE MARKET FOR LEGALISED LAND ……………………………………………………………. 39
4.  THE PRIVATE MARKET FOR LAND IN ILLEGAL SETTLEMENTS …………………………………….. 40
5.  ILLEGAL SETTLEMENT OF LAND …………………………………………………………………………………. 41
CHAPTER 6: HOUSING CONDITIONS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
2.  HOUSE TYPES. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
3.  DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSING TYPES……………………………………………………………………………. 50
4.  HISTORICAL CONTEXT ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
5.  HOUSING AS AN INDICATOR OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE LEVELS ………………………… 53
6.  RENTAL AND OWNERSHIP …………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
7.  FREE HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
8.  CROWDING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
9.  SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
CHAPTER 7: PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………….. 62
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
2.  EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES …………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
3.  EMPLOYMENT STATUS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
4.  STABILITY OF EMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.  EMPLOYMENT IN SPECIFIC SECTORS OF THE MOGADISHU ECONOMY ………………………. 65
CHAPTER 8: WOMEN IN THE MOGADISHU ECONOMY ……………………………………………………….. 79
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79
2.  THE EXTENT OF WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………. 80
3.  NEW RESEARCH ON WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………… 85
4.  FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY OF WORKING WOMEN IN WAABERI AND XAMAR JAB JAB. … 87
CHAPTER 9: HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE ………………………………………………………………………… 109
1.  TRENDS IN HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN MOGADISHU ………………………………………….. 109
2.  FOOD EXPENDITURE AS AN INDICATOR …………………………………………………………………… 114
3.  FOOD AND HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN WAABERI ……………………………………………….. 116
4.  PREVIOUS STUDIES OF POVERTY IN SOMALIA …………………………………………………………. 118
CHAPTER 10: SUPPORT NETWORKS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 123
1.  WELFARE SYSTEMS IN SOMALIA ……………………………………………………………………………… 123
2.  INFORMATION ON THE USAGE OF SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………… 124
3.  SUPPORTING VALUE SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………… 134
CHAPTER 11: WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH ……………………………………………………………. 139
1. WATER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
2. SANITATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
3. HEALTH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
CHAPTER 12: ACCESS TO EDUCATION ……………………………………………………………………………. 162
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
2. LITERACY RATES IN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………………………………… 162
3. PRIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN SELECTED AREAS OF MOGADISHU …………………… 164
4. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN XAAFADDA FANOOLE ……………………………………………………….. 166
5. THE PRIVATE MARKET IN EDUCATION ………………………………………………………………………. 172
6. SUMMARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
CHAPTER 13: IDENTIFYING DISADVANTAGED AREAS AND GROUPS IN MOGADISHU:  AN
OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
3. IDENTIFYING DISADVANTAGED HOUSEHOLDS …………………………………………………………. 177
4. IDENTIFIYING OTHER DISADVANTAGED GROUPS …………………………………………………….. 180
CHAPTER 14: BEESHA SHUKRI: A TWO YEAR OLD SQUATTER RESETTLEMENT AREA …… 182
1. THE LOCATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
2. HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
3. DEMOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
4. HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
5. HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURE LEVELS ………………………………………………………………. 184
6. WATER SUPPLY AND USAGE …………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
7. FUEL …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
8. EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………….. 186
9. SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
10. LIVESTOCK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
11. SERVICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
12. EXPRESSED PROBLEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
13. SUMMARY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
CHAPTER 15: XAAFADDA HEEGAN, DEGMADA YAQSHIID: A TWENTY FIVE YEAR OLD
SQUATTER SETTLEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
1. LOCATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
2. HISTORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
3. DEMOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
4. THREE HOUSEHOLDS IN HEEGAN OBBOSIBO …………………………………………………………… 202
5. HOUSING IN HEEGAN OBBOSIBO ………………………………………………………………………………. 205
7. EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
8. LIVESTOCK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
9. SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
10. SERVICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
11. RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
CHAPTER 16: CHILDREN IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………. 212
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
2. WORKING CHILDREN IN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………………………….. 213
3. WORKING CHILDREN IN XAMAR WEYNE AND THE LIDO …………………………………………….. 217
4. STREET CHILDREN IN XAMAR WEYNE ………………………………………………………………………. 228
5. CHILDREN IN INSTITUTIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………… 245
CHAPTER 17: BEGGARS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255
17.1: THE INCIDENCE OF BEGGING ……………………………………………………………………………….. 255
17.2: CASE STUDIES OF THREE BEGGARS ……………………………………………………………………. 256
17.3: PROFILES OF 34 BEGGARS IN XAMAR WEYNE ………………………………………………………. 258
17.4 RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 263
17.5 THE PROBLEM OF ACCESS TO RELIABLE INFORMATION: ………………………………………………………. 265
17.6 OBJECTIONS: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
CHAPTER 18. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………… 267
1. MOGADISHU IN 1987 …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
2. RESPONSES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
3. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………………………………. 268
4. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ……………………………………………………………………………. 277
5. SUSTAINABILITY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
6. PUTTING THE LAST FIRST …………………………………………………………………………………………. 279
7. OVERALL STRATEGY: SOME FINAL SUGGESTIONS …………………………………………………… 279
APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
REFERENCES (available on request)

List of figures
1.1 The location of areas and groups surveyed       7
3.1 The expansion of Mogadishu 1100 to 1968 (after Puzo 1972 p215)   21
4.1 The growth of Mogadishu 1840 to 1980 (after Puzo 1972 p142)   24
4.2 The districts of Mogadishu        27
4.3 The regions of Somalia        32
5.1  The location of obbosibo areas in Mogadishu     42

Dhikr / Dikri in Waaberi in 1988/89

Posted in 1980s, Audio, Religion by rickjdavies on 19 September, 2009

These are two audio tape recordings I made  in 1988, in the neighbourhood behind Tre Biano, in Waaberi

For information on the History of Somali Sufism see this blog: http://somalisufisam.wordpress.com/2011/03/16/history-of-somali-sufisam/

On that site I read this with interest: “Local leaders of brotherhoods customarily asked lineage heads in the areas where they wished to settle for permission to build their mosques and communities. A piece of land was usually freely given; often it was an area between two clans or one in which nomads had access to a river” In 1991, while travelling in the area, I heard about a tariiqa that was established in the then non-mans land between the Dulbahante in the Las Anod area and the Isaaq further westward on the rod to Burco.

See also video recordings of dhikr on this website

See also this page on the use of coffee (bun) in relation to dhikr: http://xawaash.com/?p=6148#sthash.XLoyAzBz.dpbs

Here is a photo of a kur, the wooden vessel in which bun is traditionally served

DSCN6965

Comments on dhikr and sufism in Somalia are welcome. Please use the Comment facility below

Dhikr / Dikri in Mogadishu

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period, Religion, Video by rickjdavies on 29 December, 2008

“Dhikr… is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. Dhikr as a devotional act often includes the repetition of the names of Allah…A group dhikr ceremony in Arabic countries is usually called the hadrah”  (from the Wikipedia entry on dhikr)

 

Undated dhikr, possibly from the 1980s. Long, good sound.

See others in the same series of 18 videos:17, 16, 15, 14,13, 12, 11, 10, 8, 7, 6,5, 4, 3, 2,

Dhikr in Mogadishu in the 1980s [1980s dikr Somalia 1]

Dhikr in Mogadishu in the 1980s [Somalia 1980s dikri 2]

Video records of Mogadishu on YouTube…1

Posted in 1960s Independence, 1980s, Religion, Video by rickjdavies on 24 December, 2008

In the 1960s

Aadan Cade Madaxweynihii ugu horeeyay 1963 -SomalSwiss.net

In 1984

Taariikhdii Somalia Somali history 1960-91 – SomaliSwiss.net

Dhikr… is an Islamic practice that focuses on the remembrance of God. Dhikr as a devotional act often includes the repetition of the names of Allah  (from the Wikipedia entry on dhikr)

Dikr in Mogadishu in the 1980s (1st)

Dikr in Mogadishu in the 1980s (2nd)

Undated dikr, possibly from the 1980s. Long, good sound. Others

Political parade

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period by rickjdavies on 20 July, 2008

Markis, Anglis, linen, Siyaad

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period by rickjdavies on 20 July, 2008

Photo taken inside the Erigavo police station, September 1991

Ubadkii Maanta, Ubaxii Berito

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period by rickjdavies on 20 July, 2008

Jalle Gen. Maxamad Syad Barre

Posted in 1969-1991 Barre period by rickjdavies on 20 July, 2008

“Madaxweynaha Golaha sare ee Towradda Jamhuriyadda Dimogradiga Somalida!

Handicraft shops in the Lido area

Posted in 1980s, Shop advertisements by rickjdavies on 17 May, 2008

Electrical shop

Posted in 1980s, Shop advertisements by rickjdavies on 16 May, 2008

Posted in 1980s, Shop advertisements by rickjdavies on 16 May, 2008

Mini-market

Posted in 1980s, Shop advertisements by rickjdavies on 16 May, 2008

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