Mogadishu: Images from the Past

“Xaafada, Suuqa iyo Jidka: A study of disadvantaged areas and groups in Muqdisho, Somalia”

Posted in 1980s, Text by rickjdavies on 16 April, 2010

“The village, the Market and the Street: A study of disadvantaged areas and groups in Mogadishu, Somalia” Available as pdf.A report prepared for the Municipality of Mogadishu, by Richard Davies. Funded by BOCD, UNICEF, Oxfam, CCFD France. Published by UNICEF- Mogadiscio, October 1988

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. VII

2002 PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
BACKGROUND ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
CHANGES MADE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.  THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2
2.  THE PERSPECTIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
3.  RESEARCH STRATEGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
CHAPTER 2: ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………… 7
CHAPTER 2: ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………… 8
MUUSE AND HIS FAMILY …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
TWO AND A HALF YEARS LATER:  ONE FAMILY IN MOGADISHU IN 1988 …………………………………… 12
CHAPTER 3: THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND …………………………………………………………………… 18
1.  MOGADISHU BEFORE THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ……………………………………………………… 18
2.  MOGADISHU IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ……………………………………………………………….. 19
CHAPTER 4: THE DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT ……………………………………………………………………… 23
1.  THE POPULATION OF MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………….. 23
2.  THE GROWTH OF MOGADISHU ………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
3.  POPULATION DISTRIBUTION WITHIN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………… 25
4.  MIGRATION INTO MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………………… 26
5.  THE MIGRANT PRESENCE WITHIN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………. 29
6.  HOUSEHOLDS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
CHAPTER 5: LAND IN MOGADISHU…………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
2.  THE PURCHASE OF LAND FROM THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOGADISHU…………………………. 39
3.  THE PRIVATE MARKET FOR LEGALISED LAND ……………………………………………………………. 39
4.  THE PRIVATE MARKET FOR LAND IN ILLEGAL SETTLEMENTS …………………………………….. 40
5.  ILLEGAL SETTLEMENT OF LAND …………………………………………………………………………………. 41
CHAPTER 6: HOUSING CONDITIONS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
2.  HOUSE TYPES. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
3.  DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSING TYPES……………………………………………………………………………. 50
4.  HISTORICAL CONTEXT ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
5.  HOUSING AS AN INDICATOR OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE LEVELS ………………………… 53
6.  RENTAL AND OWNERSHIP …………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
7.  FREE HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
8.  CROWDING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
9.  SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
CHAPTER 7: PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………….. 62
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
2.  EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES …………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
3.  EMPLOYMENT STATUS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
4.  STABILITY OF EMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.  EMPLOYMENT IN SPECIFIC SECTORS OF THE MOGADISHU ECONOMY ………………………. 65
CHAPTER 8: WOMEN IN THE MOGADISHU ECONOMY ……………………………………………………….. 79
1.  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79
2.  THE EXTENT OF WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………. 80
3.  NEW RESEARCH ON WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………… 85
4.  FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY OF WORKING WOMEN IN WAABERI AND XAMAR JAB JAB. … 87
CHAPTER 9: HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE ………………………………………………………………………… 109
1.  TRENDS IN HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN MOGADISHU ………………………………………….. 109
2.  FOOD EXPENDITURE AS AN INDICATOR …………………………………………………………………… 114
3.  FOOD AND HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN WAABERI ……………………………………………….. 116
4.  PREVIOUS STUDIES OF POVERTY IN SOMALIA …………………………………………………………. 118
CHAPTER 10: SUPPORT NETWORKS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 123
1.  WELFARE SYSTEMS IN SOMALIA ……………………………………………………………………………… 123
2.  INFORMATION ON THE USAGE OF SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………… 124
3.  SUPPORTING VALUE SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………… 134
CHAPTER 11: WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH ……………………………………………………………. 139
1. WATER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
2. SANITATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
3. HEALTH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
CHAPTER 12: ACCESS TO EDUCATION ……………………………………………………………………………. 162
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
2. LITERACY RATES IN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………………………………… 162
3. PRIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN SELECTED AREAS OF MOGADISHU …………………… 164
4. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN XAAFADDA FANOOLE ……………………………………………………….. 166
5. THE PRIVATE MARKET IN EDUCATION ………………………………………………………………………. 172
6. SUMMARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
CHAPTER 13: IDENTIFYING DISADVANTAGED AREAS AND GROUPS IN MOGADISHU:  AN
OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
3. IDENTIFYING DISADVANTAGED HOUSEHOLDS …………………………………………………………. 177
4. IDENTIFIYING OTHER DISADVANTAGED GROUPS …………………………………………………….. 180
CHAPTER 14: BEESHA SHUKRI: A TWO YEAR OLD SQUATTER RESETTLEMENT AREA …… 182
1. THE LOCATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
2. HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
3. DEMOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
4. HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
5. HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURE LEVELS ………………………………………………………………. 184
6. WATER SUPPLY AND USAGE …………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
7. FUEL …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
8. EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………….. 186
9. SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
10. LIVESTOCK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
11. SERVICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
12. EXPRESSED PROBLEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
13. SUMMARY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
CHAPTER 15: XAAFADDA HEEGAN, DEGMADA YAQSHIID: A TWENTY FIVE YEAR OLD
SQUATTER SETTLEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
1. LOCATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
2. HISTORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
3. DEMOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
4. THREE HOUSEHOLDS IN HEEGAN OBBOSIBO …………………………………………………………… 202
5. HOUSING IN HEEGAN OBBOSIBO ………………………………………………………………………………. 205
7. EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
8. LIVESTOCK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
9. SUPPORT NETWORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
10. SERVICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
11. RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
CHAPTER 16: CHILDREN IN MOGADISHU …………………………………………………………………………. 212
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
2. WORKING CHILDREN IN MOGADISHU ……………………………………………………………………….. 213
3. WORKING CHILDREN IN XAMAR WEYNE AND THE LIDO …………………………………………….. 217
4. STREET CHILDREN IN XAMAR WEYNE ………………………………………………………………………. 228
5. CHILDREN IN INSTITUTIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………… 245
CHAPTER 17: BEGGARS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255
17.1: THE INCIDENCE OF BEGGING ……………………………………………………………………………….. 255
17.2: CASE STUDIES OF THREE BEGGARS ……………………………………………………………………. 256
17.3: PROFILES OF 34 BEGGARS IN XAMAR WEYNE ………………………………………………………. 258
17.4 RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 263
17.5 THE PROBLEM OF ACCESS TO RELIABLE INFORMATION: ………………………………………………………. 265
17.6 OBJECTIONS: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
CHAPTER 18. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………… 267
1. MOGADISHU IN 1987 …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
2. RESPONSES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
3. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………………………………. 268
4. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ……………………………………………………………………………. 277
5. SUSTAINABILITY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
6. PUTTING THE LAST FIRST …………………………………………………………………………………………. 279
7. OVERALL STRATEGY: SOME FINAL SUGGESTIONS …………………………………………………… 279
APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
REFERENCES (available on request)

List of figures
1.1 The location of areas and groups surveyed       7
3.1 The expansion of Mogadishu 1100 to 1968 (after Puzo 1972 p215)   21
4.1 The growth of Mogadishu 1840 to 1980 (after Puzo 1972 p142)   24
4.2 The districts of Mogadishu        27
4.3 The regions of Somalia        32
5.1  The location of obbosibo areas in Mogadishu     42

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